Nitrogen is definitely an essential component for the survival of plants, animals and therefore the diversity as a complete. However, excessive of nitrogen is dangerous for living beings. Excess of nitrogen may cause algal blooms in plants and excessive nitrogen in drinking water can pose harm to folks who consume it. Hence nitrogen removal is crucial for the improvement of biodiversity.
Nitrogen removal by adsorption has been in practice from earlier times. Adsorption had been practiced by natural bentonite and artificial bentonite. The natural bentonite can easily adsorb ammonia, nevertheless, it cannot adsorb nitrate. On the other hand, when the organic bentonite is modified by octadecyl trimethyl ammonium, it can absorb nitrate with an increase in the removal ratio from 5% to 89%. The optimum value of nitrate removal is above 7 while the optimum value of ammonia removal is 7.
Carbon capture deals with the collection of waste carbon dioxide and depositing it so that it doesn’t affect the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide capturing is most useful in the most significant and point sources such as fossil fuels or biomass energy facilities. It also includes industries with huge carbon dioxide emissions, synthetic fuel plants and so on. In this process, ammonia is converted to nitrate, and next, the nitrate is reduced to nitrogen gas. The aerobic and anaerobic processes in this method are performed to remove ammonia and nitrogen from sanitary wastewater. Addition carbon sources and micronutrients are required to maintain the nitrifying/denitrifying process in carbon capture.
Nitrogen can be removed from the natural gas by using the cryogenic nitrogen removal and membrane solution. Membrane solution: The gases which contain 8-15% of nitrogen are passed through the first membrane module. The permeate, containing 4% nitrogen is sent to the pipeline. Lastly, the nitrogen-rich residue gas is passed to the second set of the membrane module. The residue gas has 50% nitrogen while the permeate has 10% nitrogen. The residue gas can be used as a fuel, while the permeate is treated for further recovery. In this process, the nitrogen content is reduced to 3% or higher, heavy hydrocarbons are also captured, and membrane unit needs no instruments.
Renewable natural gas
Renewable natural gas is a biogas that has been obtained by methane and can be produced economically. It is called a sustainable natural gas. In addition, renewable natural gas can be distributed by the gas grid. No extra capital is needed for its outlet. Renewable natural gas is eco-friendly, an environment suitable, too. The distribution of gases over a suitable as well as huge range decreases the cost, too.
Pressure Swing Adsorption
According to the affinity of adsorbing material and molecular characteristics, gases are separated under pressure. Zeolites, activated carbon, molecular sieves are used for this method known as Pressure Swing Adsorption.
Gases tend to get adsorbed or be attracted to solid substances during high pressure. This fact itself finds it’s application in Carbon Capture. As soon as pressure is released, the gas is desorbed.
Pressure Swing Adsorption finds its application in medical oxygen, compressed-cylinder storage and so on.